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Static data-flow analysis for software product lines in C SpringerLink

Static data-flow analysis for software product lines in C SpringerLink
19 Aprile 2023 admin

The tutorial shows how to analyze an application starting from the definition of taints, modeling the control flow with a control flow automaton, and finally interpreting the witness traces. ProGuardCORE analyzes the applications statically without affecting the runtime, unlike TaintDroid, which requires instrumentation of the Dalvik VM to track taints. Thus, the result covers all execution paths and does not have to be run every time the application is launched. Due to space restrictions we can only include the data for the analysis of the 36 benchmark programs that use the OpenSSL EVP encryption/decryption API and report on the accumulated data for the remaining ones.

For this kind of optimization user defined chaining is one particular problem. We also care about the initial sets of facts that are true at the entry or exit , and initially at every in our out point . We generate facts when we have new information at a program point, and we kill facts when that program point invalidates other information. In a forward analysis, we are reasoning about facts up to p, considering only the predecessorsof the node at p.

Other approaches

This requires finding a proper representation of the information you are going to track, defining a semi-lattice on it, and specifying the transfer relation for your analysis. The latter can be forked from the existing defaultJvmTransferRelationby overriding its methods encapsulating the instruction and call semantics. Forgiving analysis finds a trade-off between false negatives and false positives and tries to minimize the latter.

  • Introduce a new dummy block D that contains a definition of each variable used in the program.
  • Here, the uncontrolled format string condition is defined in terms of the analysis tool API.
  • DFDs can also be created using graphics or presentation tools, particularly those that support the creation of custom symbols.
  • The opposite conservative example is Amandroid, which does not analyze the native code but rather overapproximates it by assigning all data structures reachable from a native method and unknown value.
  • Changes to any element of an array are usually recorded as having changed the entire array since it may be impossible to tell at compile time which element will be changes.
  • It’s important to continuously check the diagram at each level to make sure there are no missing or unnecessary processes or flows.

If the results are used for compiler optimizations, they should provide conservative information, i.e. when applying the information, the program should not change semantics. The iteration of the fixpoint algorithm will take the values in the direction of the maximum element. Initializing all blocks with the maximum element is therefore not useful.

Local/Global Points-to Analysis

Call width controls how many callees are rendered for a particular function node when there are too many indirect call targets. The stop functions terminate the call graph if encountered, and are usually chosen because those functions do not contain details of interest. Black arcs represent direct calls, and all such direct arcs are represented in the graph. Blue arcs represent indirect calls computed using the points-to analysis; if a pointer has more than “width” possible targets, only a “width” subset are shown as representative. Triangle nodes represent functions at the bottom of the call tree; those colored in red are at a depth limit of the call graph and have futher unshown children.

definition of data flow analysis

If we find a variable which is read when not initialized then we generate a warning. Is assigned a concrete value, its possible set of values contains just that specific value. For this problem we will use the lattice of subsets of integers, with set inclusion relation as ordering and set union as a join. Abstract algebra provides a nice formalism that models this kind of structure, namely, a lattice. A join-semilattice is a partially ordered set, in which every two elements have a least upper bound .

Data Flow Diagrams

Serious program analysis and transformation tasks often require a deep understanding of information flows that occur between program components. These information flows are induced by the various runtime entity declarations and the references, explicit or implied, between them, which are in turn implied by the semantics of the language being processed. The data flow analysis can be performed on the program’s control flow graph .

definition of data flow analysis

A call graph is very useful as a data structure to support the automation of propagating information across program elements, and useful when rendered visually to help programmers understand the code. But if you install this table in your brain, you can quickly write down the algorithm mechanically. You can also see that the node’s input is collected from the union of the output of predecessors. It indicates that the fact satisfied in one of the predecessors can also be satisfied in the node.

Optimizing DSP Software

Given basic sets of facts about definition points, the data flow library computes reaching, definition-use, and use-definition chains over standard DMS control flow graphs. The preprocessor’s static conditionals allow developers to check the presence of a symbol or its value—an integer or a string literal. At compile time, the preprocessor transforms every compilation unit according to the given set of symbols , before the preprocessed compilation unit is handed over to the actual compiler. The compiler thus only compiles the code that has been included by the preprocessor, which allows it to produce efficient object code.

definition of data flow analysis

That is, X or Y occurs on the left of an assignment statement or in a read statement. If any definition in D reaches B where the variable is used, then we have a use before a definition. A definition def reaches the beginning of a block B if and only if it reaches the end of one of block B’s predecessors. A statement defines x if it assigns a value to x, for example, an assignment or read of x, or a procedure call passed x or a procedure call that can access x. It may require more text to reach the necessary level of detail about the system’s functioning.

Data Flow Analysis

A variable is only live if it’s used, so using a variable in an expression generates information. A variable is only live if it’s used before it is overwritten, so assigning to the variable kills information. The goal of static analysis is to reason about program behavior at compile-time, before ever running the program. The goal of dynamic analysis, in contrast, is to reason about program behavior at run-time. Data Flow Analysis typically operates over a Control-Flow Graph , a graphical representation of a program. Here, the uncontrolled format string condition is defined in terms of the analysis tool API.

definition of data flow analysis

Demonstrating a simple generic implementation.If you want, you can use the feature of Turnt and its -a command-line flag to quickly switch between different analyses. Reaching definitions are an example of a global property that require you to look at an entire CFG. Changes to any element of an array are usually recorded as having changed the entire array since it may be impossible to tell at compile time which element will be changes. Since deadness at a point is inherently a property of the portion of the program that comes after that point, we need to have sacnned the portion of the program that that node. The algorithm will iterate because none of the methods we have developed so far will work .

Articles Listing

If there is a definition not followed by a use, then we may want to issue a warning message to the programmer. A better way is to number the definitions and create a table whose ith entry points to the ith definition. The In and what is a data flow in data analysis Out sets can then be bit vectors such that the ith position is set if the ith definition is in the set. A data flow diagram can dive into progressively more detail by using levels and layers, zeroing in on a particular piece.

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